The Sex Chromosomes of Frogs: Variability and Tolerance Offer Clues to Genome Evolution and Function

Jacob W. Malcom, Randal S. Kudra, John H. Malone

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, 06269 USA

Frog intercourse chromosomes offer a perfect system for advancing our knowledge of genome evolution and function due to the selection of intercourse dedication systems into the group, the variety of intercourse chromosome maturation states, the simplicity of experimental manipulation during very very early development. After quickly sex that is reviewing biology generally speaking, we give attention to what’s known about frog sex determination, intercourse chromosome development, and current, genomics-facilitated advances into the industry. In conclusion we highlight gaps within our present knowledge of frog sex chromosomes, and recommend priorities for future research that may advance broad familiarity with gene dosage and intercourse chromosome development.

Keyword phrases: Homomorphic, aneuploidy, dosage, settlement, intercourse dedication


Alterations in gene content quantity are a crucial way to obtain variation for development, but brand new content figures that change gene dosage usually presents a challenge for organismal success. The scale of copy-number modification can add the removal or replication of 1 or perhaps a genes that are few to polyploidization of most genes through whole-genome duplication 1-3. Post-duplication, genes routinely have certainly one of three fates: nonfunctionalization, for which just one associated with copies keeps any function; subfunctionalization, where the copies diversify to “share” the big event for the initial; or neofunctionalization, for which among the gene copies gains a novel function 2, 4, 5. There clearly was a strong populace genetic aspect of the chances of these various fates, but ahead of the fate is recognized, the system containing the duplicates faces the task of surviving with an over-abundance of gene item for duplicate genes or under-abundance of non-duplicated, interacting genes 6-10.